The 99 names of Allah

The 99 Names of Allah, also known as The 99 Most Beautiful Names of God, are the names of God which Muslims believe are revealed in the Qur’an and Sunnah.

There is, according to Hadith, a special group of 99 names but no enumeration of them. Thus the exact list is not agreed upon, and the names of God (as adjectives, word constructs, or otherwise) exceed 99 in the Qur’an and Sunnah.

In one Islamic tradition, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ used to call God by all His Names:

“اللهم إني ادعوك بأسمائك الحسنى كلها”
“O God, I invoke You with all of Your Beautiful Names.”
Narrated by Ibn Majah, book of Du`a; and by Imam Malik in his Muwatta’, Kitab al-Shi`r

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said: “Verily, there are ninety-nine names of God, one hundred minus one. He who enumerates [and believes in them and the one God behind] them would get into Paradise.”
Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, no. 1410

Of note is that this hadith does not say that there are only 99 names, but 99 names that are better than the others. This caused people to search them out in the Qur’an and Sunnah, and a list was compiled. Over time it became custom to recite the list in its entirety. While some Muslims believe that this list is mentioned by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ peace be upn him himself, the specialist Muslim scholars argue strongly that the list was just compiled by a Muslim scholar as an addendum to the actual hadith, (Al Waleed ibn Muslim).

Reciting the traditional names has developed into a ritual by some Muslims.

List of the 99 Names

The Qur’an refers to the attributes of God as God’s “most beautiful names” (Arabic: al-asmāʾ al-ḥusnā) (see [Qur’an 7:180], [Qur’an 17:110], [Qur’an 20:8], [Qur’an 59:24])). According to Gerhard Böwering, “They are traditionally enumerated as 99 in number to which is added as the highest name (al-ism al-aʿẓam), the supreme name of God, Allāh. The locus classicus for listing the divine names in the literature of qurʾānic commentary is [Qur’an 17:110], “Call upon God, or call upon the merciful; whichsoever you call upon, to him belong the most beautiful names,” and also [Qur’an 59:22] q 59:22-4, which includes a cluster of more than a dozen divine epithets.”

Islamic theology makes a distinction between the attributes of God and the divine essence.

Arabic Transliteration Translation
1 الرحمن Ar-Raḥmān The Exceedingly Compassionate, The Exceedingly Beneficent, The Exceedingly Gracious (to all of humanity and all creatures)
2 الرحيم Ar-Raḥīm The Exceedingly Merciful
3 الملك Al-Malik The King, The Sovereign
4 القدوس Al-Quddūs The Holy, The Divine, The Pure, The Purifier
5 السلام As-Salām The Peace, The Source of Peace and Safety
6 المؤمن Al-Muʾmin The granter of security
7 المهيمن Al-Muhaymin The Controller
8 العزيز Al-ʿAzīz The Almighty, The Invulnerable, The Honorable
9 الجبار Al-Jabbār The Irresistible, The Compeller
10 المتكبر Al-Mutakabbir The Majestic, The Supreme
11 الخالق Al-Khāliq The Creator
12 البارئ Al-Bāriʾ The Evolver, The Maker
13 المصور Al-Muṣawwir The Fashioner, The Shaper, The Designer
14 الغفار Al-Ghaffār The Repeatedly Forgiving
15 القهار Al-Qahhār The Subduer
16 الوهاب Al-Wahhāb The Bestower
17 الرزاق Ar-Razzāq The Provider
18 الفتاح Al-Fattāḥ The Opener, The Victory Giver
19 العليم Al-ʿAlīm The All-Knowing, Omniscient
20 القابض Al-Qābiḍ The Restrainer, The Straightener
21 الباسط Al-Bāsiṭ The Extender / Expander
22 الخَافِض Al-Khāfiḍ The Abaser, The Humiliator, The Downgrader
23 الرافع Ar-Rāfiʿ The Exalter, The Upgrader
24 المعز Al-Muʿizz The Giver of Honor
25 المذل Al-Muzill The Giver of Dishonor
26 السميع As-Samīʿ The All-Hearing
27 البصير Al-Baṣīr The All-Seeing
28 الحكم Al-Ḥakam The Judge, The Arbitrator
29 العدل Al-ʿAdl The Utterly Just
30 اللطيف Al-Laṭīf The Gentle, The Subtly Kind
31 الخبير Al-Khabīr The All-Aware
32 الحليم Al-Ḥalīm The Forbearing, The Indulgent
33 العظيم Al-ʿAẓīm The Magnificent
34 الغفور Al-Ghafūr The Much-Forgiving
35 الشكور Ash-Shakūr The Grateful
36 العلي Al-ʿAlīy The Sublime
37 الكبير Al-Kabīr The Great
38 الحفيظ Al-Ḥafīẓ The Preserver
39 المقيت Al-Muqīt The Nourisher
40 الحسيب Al-Ḥasīb The Bringer of Judgment
41 الجليل Al-Jalīl The Majestic
42 الكريم Al-Karīm The Bountiful, The Generous
43 الرقيب Ar-Raqīb The Watchful
44 المجيب Al-Mujīb The Responsive, The Answerer
45 الواسع Al-Wāsiʿ The Vast, The All-Embracing, The Omnipresent, The Boundless
46 الحكيم Al-Ḥakīm The All-Wise
47 الودود Al-Wadūd The Loving
48 المجيد Al-Majīd The All-Glorious, The Majestic
49 الباعث Al-Bāʿith The Resurrector
50 الشهيد Ash-Shahīd The Witness
51 الحق Al-Ḥaqq The Truth, The Reality
52 الوكيل Al-Wakīl The Trustee, The Dependable, The Advocate
53 القوي Al-Qawiy The Strong
54 المتين Al-Matīn The Firm, The Steadfast
55 الولي Al-Walī The Friend, Patron and Helper
56 الحميد Al-Ḥamīd The All Praiseworthy
57 المحصي Al-Muḥṣī The Accounter, The Numberer of All
58 المبدئ Al-Mubdiʾ The Originator, The Producer, The Initiator
59 المعيد Al-Muʿīd The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All
60 المحيي Al-Muḥyī The Giver of Life
61 المميت Al-Mumīt The Bringer of Death
62 الحي Al-Ḥayy The Living
63 القيوم Al-Qayyūm The Subsisting, The Independent
64 الواجد Al-Wājid The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing
65 الماجد Al-Mājid The Illustrious, The Magnificent
66 الواحد Al-Wāḥid The One, The Unique
67 الاحد Al-ʾAḥad The Unity, The Indivisible
68 الصمد Aṣ-Ṣamad The Eternal, The Absolute, The Self-Sufficient
69 القادر Al-Qādir The All-Powerful, He Who is able to do Everything
70 المقتدر Al-Muqtadir The Determiner, The Dominant
71 المقدم Al-Muqaddim The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward
72 المؤخر Al-Muʾakhkhir The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away
73 الأول Al-ʾAwwal The First, The Beginning-less
74 الأخر Al-ʾAkhir The Last, The Endless
75 الظاهر Aẓ-Ẓāhir The Manifest, The Evident, The Outer
76 الباطن Al-Bāṭin The Hidden, The Unmanifest, The Inner
77 الوالي Al-Wālī The Patron, The Protecting Friend, The Friendly Lord
78 المتعالي Al-Mutaʿālī The Supremely Exalted, The Most High
79 البر Al-Barr The Good, The Beneficent
80 التواب At-Tawwāb The Ever-Returning, Ever-Relenting
81 المنتقم Al-Muntaqim The Avenger
82 العفو Al-ʿAfū The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver
83 الرؤوف Ar-Raʾūf The Kind, The Pitying
84 مالك الملك Mālik-ul-Mulk Owner of all Sovereignty
85 ذو الجلال والإكرام Dhū-l-Jalāli wa-l-ʾikrām Lord of Majesty and Generosity
86 المقسط Al-Muqsiṭ The Equitable, The Requiter
87 الجامع Al-Jāmiʿ The Gatherer, The Unifier
88 الغني Al-Ghanī The Rich, The Independent
89 المغني Al-Mughnī The Enricher, The Emancipator
90 المانع Al-Māniʿ The Withholder, The Shielder, The Defender
91 الضار Aḍ-Ḍārr The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor
92 النافع An-Nāfiʿ The Propitious, The Benefactor, The Source of Good
93 النور An-Nūr The Light
94 الهادي Al-Hādī The Guide, The Way
95 البديع Al-Badīʿ The Incomparable, The Unattainable, The Beautiful
96 الباقي Al-Bāqī The Immutable, The Infinite, The Everlasting
97 الوارث Al-Wārith The Heir, The Inheritor of All
98 الرشيد Ar-Rashīd The Guide to the Right Path
99 الصبور Aṣ-Ṣabūr The Timeless, The Patient

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