Historically, Islam teaches that Allah has decreed all things, good and evil from eternity, all that happens, whether obedience or disobedience, faith or infidelity, sickness or health, riches or poverty, life or death. This article of faith was added after the death of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and so is not considered to be from the original articles of faith.
Understanding the concept of fate
The belief in predestination has been the subject of many debates, arguing whether a person is therefore responsible for his actions if Allah has already willed that person to be a certain way. Others refute that though Allah has predestined all things, a person can change their destiny, for instance a muslim who doesn’t practice his faith and Allah has sentenced him to Hell, if that person tries to become a better muslim and be more devout, Allah can change that persons destination to Paradise, if he wills.
All final decisions rest with Allah.
The Quran states that everything happens by the will of Allah:
Nor can a soul die except by Allah’s leave, the term being fixed as by writing. If any do desire a reward in this life, We shall give it to him; and if any do desire a reward in the Hereafter, We shall give it to him. And swiftly shall We reward those that (serve us with) gratitude.
And with Him are the keys of the unseen treasures– none knows them but He; and He knows what is in the land and the sea, and there falls not a leaf but He knows it, nor a grain in the darkness of the earth, nor anything green nor dry but (it is all) in a clear book.
Say: For myself I have no power to benefit, nor power to hurt, save that which Allah willeth. Had I knowledge of the Unseen, I should have abundance of wealth, and adversity would not touch me. I am but a warner, and a bearer of good tidings unto folk who believe.
Say: “Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector’: and on Allah let the Believers put their trust.”
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said, “(as regards your creation), every one of you is collected in the womb of his mother for the first forty days, and then he becomes a clot for another forty days, and then a piece of flesh for an other forty days. Then Allah sends an angel to write four words: He writes his deeds, time of his death, means of his livelihood, and whether he will be wretched or blessed (in religion). Then the soul is breathed into his body. So a man may do deeds characteristic of the people of the (Hell) Fire, so much so that there is only the distance of a cubit between him and hell, and then what has been written (by the angel) surpasses, and so he starts doing deeds characteristic of the people of Paradise and enters Paradise. Similarly, a person may do deeds characteristic of the people of Paradise, so much so that there is only the distance of a cubit between him and it, and then what has been written (by the angel) surpasses, and he starts doing deeds of the people of the (Hell) Fire and enters the (Hell) Fire.”
Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 55, Number 549, Narrated by Abdullah
One day Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) noticed a Bedouin leaving his camel without tying it and he asked the Bedouin, “Why don’t you tie down your camel?” The Bedouin answered, “I put my trust in Allah.” The Prophet then said, “Tie your camel first, then put your trust in Allah”