Fard prayer: Jumah (Friday prayers)

Jum’ah (also known as Friday prayer) is a congregational prayer every Friday, just after noon instead of Zohr.

It is obligatory for men (and preferable for women) to perform Jum’ah in congregation (jama’ah) at a mosque. Anyone with a contagious illness or otherwise sick are asked to not attend. Those unable to join a congregation pray the regular Zohr prayer.

The jum’ah prayer is half the Zohr prayer for convenience, and preceded by a sermon. The sermon, which is a technical replacement of the two reduced raka’ahs of the ordinary Zohr prayer, is followed by a communal prayer, led by the Imam. In most cases the khatib also serves as the imam.

The Jum’ah prayer begins with the call to prayer the muadhin makes; then the Adhan which marks the beginning of Jumm’a. Once the Katheeb has given his speech, he concludes with a du’a, which then leads the muadhin to make the iqama which is followed by the two rak’at prayer.

Time

Same time as Zohr prayer.

Number Of Rakahs

  • 4 Fard
  • 2 Sunnah before and 2,4 or 6 Sunnah after the Fard

Importance

Praying Jum’ah comes with many blessings that last throughout the week: from one Jum’ah prayer to the next. Friday Prayer is very important in Islam. It has got its own moral, social and political benefits. It is obligatory for every Muslim except women, children, seriously ill people and travelers. They can pray Jum’ah but it is not obligatory on them.

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ has given a strong warning to a person who leaves his Jum’ah prayer without a good reason.

Sequence Of Jum’ah Prayer

Cleanliness

Because in Friday Prayer a comparatively large number of Muslims gather in a big place, lslam emphasizes on the physical cleanliness.

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said, “A person who has a bath on Friday, cleanses himself fully, uses oil and perfume; then goes to the mosque early in the afternoon and takes his place quietly without pushing or disturbing people; then he prays (optional prayer as much as he was able to pray); then sits quietly listening to the Khutbah, he will be forgiven his sins between this Jum’ah and the next Jum’ah.”
Sahih Bukhari

Importance Of Going Early To Friday Prayer

On Friday it is more rewarding to get ready quickly to go to the masjid.

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said, “On Friday the Angels stand oust the door of the mosque and write down the names of the people in the order in which they enter the mosque for Friday prayer. The first group of people who enter the mosque get the reward equivalent to that of sacrificing a camel, the people who enter the mosque after them get the reward equivalent to that of sacrificing a cow. The people who enter the mosque after them get the reward equivalent to that of sacrificing a ram and the people who follow on likewise get this reward of a chicken, egg and so on there is a gradation of rewards for the people as they enter. The angels keep writing the names of the people as they enter the mosque until the Imam sits down to give Khutbah. Then the angels collect their registers and sit and listen to the Khutbah.”
Sahih Bukhari and Muslim

Praying Before The Fard Rakahs

A person who goes to attend Friday prayer can pray as many nafls as he wishes after the sun has declined from its zenith to when the Imam comes to give Khutbah (Sermon). Anyhow he is expected to pray at least 2 rakats sunnah.

Listening To The Khutbah (Sermon)

Once the Khutbah starts, the whole congregation should listen to it in silence. If a person arrives while the Imam is giving Khutbah then this person should pray 2 rakats nafl before sitting down to listen to Khutbah.

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said, “If anyone of you goes to attend the Friday Prayer while the Imam is delivering Khutbah he should pray 2 rakats and should not make them long.”
Sahih Muslim, Narrated by Jabir

Once a man came to Friday prayer while Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was delivering Khutbah, so Prophet Muhammad ﷺ asked him, “Did you pray?” “No”, he answered. Then Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said to him, “Stand up and pray .”
Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, Narrated by Jabir

It is a continuous practice in some mosques that those who arrive while the Imam is giving speech sit down and listen to the speech. When the Imam has finished the speech he gives time to the late arrivals to pray 2 or 4 rakats sunnat. After that the Imam gives a short Khutbah in Arabic before praying the Jumah Prayer. Some people get very annoyed if they see a person offer 2 rakats sunnat, while the imam is giving speech. They feel that the person is being disrespectful to the Imam. This is incorrect and unproved from the practice of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ . It is also against those hadiths which we mentioned above and the one we are mentioning below.

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said: “Whenever one of you enters the mosque he should not sit down without offering 2 rakats.”
Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, Narrated by Abl Qatadah

The Jum’ah Prayer

Jum’ah Prayer is 2 rakats fard. If a person is late and finds only 1 rakat with the congregation he should complete the second rakat alone. If a person arrives late that he misses the Jum’ah prayer completely then he has to offer 4 rakat fard of Zuhr prayer. The Jum’ah prayer is replacement of Zuhr prayer but the Imam has to recite Q’irat aloud in Jum’ah Prayer.

Praying After Jum’ah

After the Jum’ah Prayer 2 rakats of sunnah prayer is an authentically proven practice of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ (saw) but some companions used to pray 4 or 6 rakats sunnat after the Jum’ah Prayer.

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ did not pray after the Friday prayer until he went home and then he prayed 2 rakats
Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, Narrated by Ibn Umar

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said: “Anyone of you who is going to pray after the Friday prayer, he should pray 4 rakats.”
Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, Narrated by Abu Hurairah

‘Whenever Abdullah ibn Umar prayed Jum’ah in Mecca, he would move a little forward after the Jum’ah prayer and offer 2 rakats; then he would move a little forward again and offer 4 rakats. And whenever he prayed Jum’ah in Madinah he did not pray in the Mosque after the Jum’ah prayer until he went back home; then he prayed 2 rakats. When he was asked why he did not pray in the mosque after the Jum’ah prayer, He answered, “This was the practice of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
Narrated by Ata

These hadiths Clarify that 2, 4 or 6 rakats can be offered after the Jum’ah prayer according to the time and capacity of the person. It is not good practice to accuse people who read 2 rakats only because this, too, was the authentic practice of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ .

Quran Quotes

O ye who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the Day of Assembly), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and traffic): That is best for you if ye but knew!
Quran 62:9

And when the Prayer is finished, then may ye disperse through the land, and seek of the Bounty of Allah: and celebrate the Praises of Allah often (and without stint): that ye may prosper.
Quran 62:10

Hadith Quotes

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said “I wish to appoint someone to lead the prayer and myself go to the houses of those who missed the Friday Prayer and set fire to their houses with the occupants in them.”
Sahih Muslim, Ahmad

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said, “A person who leaves 3 Friday prayers consecutively, Allah puts a seal on his heart.”
Ahmad, Tirmizi, Narrated by Abu Dawud