Sunnah salah are optional but highly encouraged, and were additional voluntary prayers performed by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. Praying them is not obligatory but is highly encouraged to perform them routinely.
Before And After The 5 Daily Prayers
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ used to pray more rakahs than the minimum prescribed numbers of rakahs for each of the 5 daily prayers, and these are called Sunnah. Prayer is still accepted even if the Sunnah isn’t performed, but Prophet Muhammad ﷺ used to pray them regularly so it is highly recommended.
[table]Name,Prescribed time,Voluntary before fard,Fard,Voluntary after fard
Fajr (فجر),Dawn to sunrise,2 Raka’ah,2 Raka’ah,2 Raka’ah
Zohr (ظهر),After true noon until Asr,2-4 Raka’ah,4 Raka’ah,2-4 Raka’ah
Asr (عصر),Mid afternoon till just before sunset,2-4 Raka’ah,4 Raka’ah,-
Maghrib (مغرب),After sunset until dusk,2-4 Raka’ah,3 Raka’ah,2 Raka’ah
Isha (عشاء),Dusk until dawn,4 Raka’ah,4 Raka’ah,2 Raka’ah[/table]
Istikhaarah is a prayer performed when a Muslim needs guidance on a particular matter, such as whether they should marry a certain person. In order to perform this salah one should perform a normal two raka’at salah to completion. After completion one should say the du’a which is called Istikhaarah. The intention for the salah should be in ones heart to perform two raka’at of salah followed by Istikhaarah. The salah can be performed at any times where salah is not forbidden.
Tahajjud prayer is performed at night time, and it is recommended that it be performed after first going to sleep for some part of the evening. Muslims believe that the reward is greater for those who do this prayer at a later time. (It is harder to wake up and pray early in the morning, making the person’s effort greater, resulting in a greater reward from God.)
Tarawih can be done only during the fasting month of Ramadan. This prayer can be done alone, in a group, at home, or in a mosque or other public meeting area. The total number of raka’ah varies, but with a minimum of eight.